One of the most significant developments in the history of social psychology has been the emergence of dual-process theories (for reviews, see Gawronski & Creighton, 2013; Sherman, Gawronski, & Trope, 2014). The central assumption underlying these theories is that judgments and behavior are the product of two qualitatively distinct mental processes, one of which operates in an automatic fashion, while the other operates in a controlled fashion. This idea also had a major impact on attitude research, which has been guided by dual-process theories since their first appearance in the field. For example, the MODE model provided valuable insights into two distinct pathways by which attitudes guide behavior (Fazio, 1990); the elaboration-likelihood model (ELM) integrated a wide range of disparate findings by distinguishing between central and peripheral routes to attitude change (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986); and the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) illuminated the interplay of heuristic and systematic processes underlying the effects of persuasive messages (Chaiken, Liberman, & Eagly, 1989).