In the latter half of the 20th century, especially in its closing decades, policy makers in some parts of the world started adopting policies of multiculturalism. These were seen as a tool for creating more inclusive societies. The goal was, at least in part, to encourage participatory democracy. That meant including groups in the national conversation that had previously stood at the margins. Some prominent scholars advocated for multicultural democratic models (e.g., Kymlicka 1995), including the possibility of multi-language states (e.g., Kymlicka 2001). Thus, ideas pertinent to increased inclusion and participation raised the issue of language in society.