Prior to the introduction of Descriptive Translation Studies in Spain, discussions around translation ethics hinged on the notion of fidelity and were usually with reference to literary translation. This resulted in right-or-wrong positions around the notion of equivalence, favouring source-oriented approaches. Such approaches crystallized in various prescriptive theories that ensued from translation criticism. Rather than describing what translators did and the reasons underlying translators’ choices, translation scholars focused on what translators did wrong. Skopos theory and Descriptive Translation Studies brought in a turning point in translation reflection: the 1990s saw dualist notions of translation being progressively abandoned. This opened up new avenues of research on the interface between translation and ethics.