Radical left parties (RLPs) experienced significant electoral decline following the collapse of the Soviet Union. These parties have, however, remained significant in electoral terms in many European countries through promoting anti-establishment appeals and criticisms of the apparent neo-liberal direction of European integration (Dunphy 2004; March 2012). RLPs can be defined as parties to the left of social democratic parties that seek ‘root and branch transformation of capitalism’ (March and Mudde 2005). These commitments have led RLPs to launch fierce criticisms of the EU's response to the 2008 economic crisis. This was demonstrated when most RLPs supported the Syriza-led government in Greece as it held a referendum to challenge the terms of the third EU bailout of Greek sovereign debt in July 2015. Most RLPs also welcomed the subsequent Greek ‘Oxi’ (no) vote against austerity measures.