Over the last 20 years two components of human memory have commonly been distinguished·short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The principal features of STM are its limited capacity, the ease and rapidity with which items are retrieved, rapid forgetting, and apparently no permanent record. In addition, studies by Conrad (1964), Baddeley (1966) and others have suggested that verbal items are held in STM in terms of their sounds and not their meanings. In contrast, it is believed that LTM has a much larger capacity, shows slower forgetting (or even no forgetting) and stores words principally in terms of their semanticăassociative features. In general, LTM is the record of all our past learning.