It is well established that encoding and retrieval processes in episodic memory involve different regions in the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Specifically, encoding processes differentially engage left prefrontal areas, whereas retrieval processes for the same materials predominantly involve right prefrontal areas. This observed difference was embodied in the hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry model (HERA; Tulving, Kapur, Craik, Moscovitch, & Houle, 1994), and the empirical observations on which the model is based have since been replicated many times (for reviews, see Buckner, 1996; Nyberg, Cabeza, & Tulving, 1996; Tulving, 1998).