The main purpose of this article is to examine the similarities and differences between encoding and retrieval processes in human memory. At first it seems that the two sets of processes are very similar. This position follows from TulvingÊs encoding specificity principle, KolersÊs views on repetition of operations, and the concept of transfer-appropriate processing. In the same vein, Craik (1983) has suggested that encoding processes are essentially those involved in the perception and comprehension of events, and that retrieval processes represent an attempt to recapitulate these initial processes. In addition, evidence from neuropsychology and neuroscience suggests that the pathways involved in retrieval overlap substantially with those involved in perception and storage of the same type of information.