This chapter analyzes how the system of global governance has largely failed in supporting peacebuilding efforts in war-torn countries in their transition to peace, stability, and prosperity since the end of the Cold War. The term “peacebuilding”— both in the preventive and post-conflict contexts—means different things to different academics and practitioners, as well as to the international organizations and to the many other actors involved in supporting it. However, peacebuilding is a complex and challenging political process, which has resulted in multiple and overpowering operational challenges.