After more than 25 years of economic reforms, agricultural markets in India are at a crossroad, even as the roles played by the public and private sectors have evolved over the period. The present chapter briefly reviews the policies and performances of agricultural markets in the pre-reform period and focuses in greater detail on agricultural marketing policies in the post-reform period. In particular, it focuses on the implications of rapid diffusion of supermarkets for smallholders. The chapter concludes with policy implications that draws upon lessons from other countries that share similar characteristics, particularly China and Indonesia, to prepare a roadmap for more a inclusive and competitive agricultural marketing system in India.