Many school districts across the country struggle to help students in early elementary grades build a strong foundation in mathematics. The adoption of one-to-one digital devices (i.e., one device per student) is a strategy that growing numbers of districts are using to try to improve student learning (Penuel, 2006; Zheng, Warschauer, Lin, & Chang, 2016). In Auburn, Maine—a small city where a majority of students qualify for free or reduced-price lunch—educators faced low mathematics achievement in the early elementary grades. In 2011, district leaders implemented a one-to-one iPad initiative with the hope that the devices would support more customized student instruction and improve achievement. After three years of implementation, the Auburn School Department recognized that the introduction of mobile devices and associated professional learning had not been sufficient to take full advantage of the technologies and to promote high-quality mathematics learning and teaching.