This chapter clarifies the term “suburbanization” in the context of India and advocates for the use of the alternate term: “periurbanization.” It is followed by a brief history of suburbanization from the Mughal era and the colonial period to the post-independence period. Suburbanization as a nationwide process began in India after the 1950s. India’s suburbs developed rapidly after the 1970s, and suburbanization continues at a fast pace today. Then, the chapter examines policies and planning initiatives that have influenced the suburbanization process in the country. Next, the focus is on those who live in the suburban areas, looking closely at the conflicts and challenges facing India’s suburbanization process. The chapter concludes with a look into the future.