The United States federal government began formal financial support for digital library research in 1994, with the funding of six projects under the auspices of the federated Digital Library Initiative (now called DLI-1) program. These DLI-1 research and development projects were jointly funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The support for the DLI-1 program initially came out of the United States federal government’s High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC) and grew out of a community-based series of workshops sponsored by the NSF in 1993–94 (Griffin, 1998).