This chapter examines the role that indigenous peoples (IP) or local communities play, or could play, in conserving biodiversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes the importance of traditional ecological knowledge for the protection of biological diversity and the role that IP and local populations can play in its conservation. It tries to ensure that these roles are taken into account by the Parties to the Convention through Articles 8(j), 10(c), 17(2), 18(4) and related articles that specifically focus on IP and local communities. Above all, it is Article 8(j) that sets out the signatories’ obligations in terms of IP and traditional knowledge (TK). Accordingly, each Contracting Party must:

…respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices!.]