The implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) builds on the foundations of the Rio process and the broad acceptance of its concept of sustainable development. However, it also comes within a context of trade liberalization, globalization, and the development of a hegemonic school of thought according to which the market should play an increasing role in all sectors of society while the state seeks to diminish its own role. These two background factors change the rules of the game for conservation: here as elsewhere, less state and more market is the watchword.