Patriotism and cosmopolitanism are often presumed to be mutually exclusive. Defenders of cosmopolitanism often view patriotism as a dangerous form of parochialism, 1 and defenders of patriotism regularly charge cosmopolitanism with advocating rootlessness and denouncing family, community, and country. 2 According to David Miller’s recent assessment, political theorists face a choice: “either to adopt a more heroic version of universalism, which attaches no intrinsic significance to national boundaries, or else to embrace ethical particularism.” 3