This book studies post-New Public Management (NPM) reforms by contrasting them with the NPM-based public-sector reforms that took place in the 1980s and 1990s. Its empirical focus is on Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Australia and New Zealand. We apply a transformative theoretical approach by focusing on political design, cultural-institutional trajectories and external pressure to understand the processes and effects of the reforms (Christensen and Lægreid 2001a). This approach allows us to make a systematic and definitive assessment of NPM and of the experience and results of post-NPM reforms.