Participation has become a rallying call in social policy, although its formulation and objectives varies greatly. In some countries, the primary goal has been to implement measures that encourage - or require - those who receive or are applying for social security benefits to take steps to find employment. In others, greater emphasis has been placed on developing social security strategies and programs that acknowledge the employment barriers those on welfare face, or allow them to perform important social roles such as parenting young children or looking after frail older relatives.