Job design is communicated to employees by managers through top-down, standardized written job descriptions (i.e. tasks, responsibilities, and reporting relationships). Job design used to represent a “one-size-fits-all” approach in which employees in the same job receiving the same contents (Wrzesniewski et al., 2013). Therefore, it is not customized to meet individual needs, preferences, abilities and motives, but is for control and constraint (Wrzesniewski et al., 2013) (cf. Hornung et al., 2010; Rousseau et al., 2006). As time goes by, this “one-size-fits-all” job description is gradually transformed by employees to proactively develop a positive meaning and identity in their work (Wrzesniewski et al., 2013).