This chapter analyses the modes of governance through which the EU influences social policies of member states. I argue that, because the EU influences public policy, welfare state scholars should consider EU-level policy and governance in their analyses. The EU’s welfare states – although institutionalised in diverse configurations (Korpi and Palme, 1998; Esping-Andersen, 1990) – provide protection to their citizens against social contingencies, such as ageing, illness and unemployment. In the shift to dual-earner societies welfare reforms have dealt with challenges, such as balancing work and family life (Esping-Andersen et al., 2002; Taylor-Gooby, 2004).