Music therapy services among wounded and ill service members and veterans play a central role in the growth of music therapy as a recognized profession. Beginning from the late nineteenth century to the present, music therapists have provided services to military personnel, their families, service members in transition, and veterans nationwide. These music therapy programs are found in military treatment facilities, in VA health-care facilities, and in community-based settings across the country. Important topics discussed in this chapter include a definition of music therapy and a brief history of the music therapy profession, concluding with a detailed review of the long history of using music therapy with service members and veterans diagnosed with psychological and physical illnesses.