Human beings learn everywhere, all the time, through their dealings with other people and the environment around them; and through processes that can be intentional and conscious, or unintentional and beyond the realms of conscious awareness. It is hardly surprising that there has long been research on learning and how best to foster it in formal educational environments. But there is today a growing recognition, as Werquin (2010, p. 14) puts it, “that individuals are capable of accumulating knowledge, skills and competencies throughout their lifetime, well beyond their organized learning in formal settings, such as school, university or structured vocational training.” Increased attention from educationalists and other researchers regarding the characterization of learning that takes place outside formal education, and the learning outcomes that result, has resulted in a fast-developing field of enquiry. Work exists in generic educational studies, fields such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology (for example, Eraut, 2000, 2004; Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2009; Werquin, 2010) and music (e.g. Finnegan, 1989; Green, 2002; McCarthy, 1999).