Performing music, communication through music, is a ubiquitous human activity. As tools to assist in human activities have evolved from the mechanical to the electronic, music making has not escaped the relentless tide of technological innovation. This chapter explores forms of technology-mediated performance, and the ways in which the intervention of computers and electronics has changed, and continues to change, our processes and understanding of music making. Advances in computing power and speed now allow machines to simulate aspects of human-like intelligence and behavior so that computers can more closely and dynamically partner with humans in creative performance, improvisation, and composition. Technological innovations have led to new instruments and traditional instruments augmented by electronics that lead to new ways of performing, improvising, and composing.