Absolute pitch (AP), sometimes called “perfect pitch,” is typically defined as the ability to label or produce a pitch (e.g., F♯) without reference to an external standard. Such labeling is typically effortless and rapid. Although AP is rare in the general population—its incidence is often cited as 1 in 10,000 (Deutsch, 2013; Levitin & Rogers, 2005; Takeuchi & Hulse, 1993)—subgroups of musicians trained in Western classical music have a much higher incidence. For example, in a survey of professional music schools in the United States, researchers found that roughly 12% of entering students self-identified as having AP (Gregersen, Kowalsky, Kohn, & Marvin, 2000); among Asian music students in their sample, 47% reported AP. In another specialized population, the early blind, researchers found that 57% of participants with musical training had AP (Hamilton, Pascual-Leone, & Schlaug, 2004). Clearly AP is not so rare among those with musical training. Yet it is unclear whether AP is the result of that training or whether it is an inborn trait in some individuals, who later go on to study music.