As the year ends, considerable rhetorical progress has been made on the agenda for peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The New York Declaration and the statement by President Jelavic at the Istanbul Summit contain important commitments on strengthening central institutions, return of refugees and displaced persons, a joint border service, military reductions and integration, economic reform and regional co-operation. Translating these commitments into reality will be a challenge, as was immediately apparent from the criticisms levelled at the New York Declaration by both entities (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska).