The purpose of this chapter is to assess the role of the Inter-American Human Rights System in the protection of the rights of indigenous peoples, particularly in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The protection of the right to collective property, territory and consultation has been important in the advancement of the rights of indigenous peoples. However, there is a need to develop a new framework that can encompass socio-economic and collective rights. The use of Third World Approaches to International Law could be an important tool in expanding possibilities vis-à-vis the recently adopted American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.