Originally identified as hunter–gatherers, the Twa community in Rwanda has been deprived of their forest area and finds itself in a permanent struggle for land. In this chapter, Vanhees discusses the problematic complexities of defining Twa within the legal framework of indigenous peoples. Her essentialism-based critique points out the fluidity of Twa’s identity, and it sheds a light on intragroup dynamics that may bring about contradicting interests within one group. Both analytical angles will explore land dimensions in the Twa communities. By shedding a light on these two possible pitfalls, the chapter aims to point out the consequences of essentializing a group’s identity in the light of the identification process.