This chapter seeks to explore the complexities regarding indigenous rights in the Middle East and North Africa through a discussion of Nubian indigeneity in Egypt. It does so by examining the competing frames of indigeneity and development when it comes to Nubian mobilisation of return to ancestral lands along the Nile River. This chapter argues that, in addition to being an end in itself, recognition of indigeneity can be seen as an explicit strategy for pursuing other specific goals.