What is cognitive learning? How do we cultivate it and how do we measure it? These and other questions related to student learning have vexed educational researchers for decades (see Chapter 16 in this Handbook for a discussion of affective learning). Indeed, trying to assess any type of learning outcome is not easy. Yet, some types seem fairly straightforward, at least on the surface. Behavioral or skills-based learning outcomes tend to entail the demonstration of a particular task, with the desired outcome being degrees of acceptance or failure (Bloom, 1956). 210The strategies recommended to attain proficiency in a behavioral or skills-based learning outcomes typically incorporate a regimen of practice and repetition until satisfactory demonstration of the learning is displayed. Thus, the adage “practice makes perfect” epitomizes behavioral or skills-based learning outcomes. However, practice does not imply that proficiency in a behavioral or skills-based learning outcome is easy or can be accomplished in a short period of time. Rather, the intent is to acknowledge that the measurement of such learning outcomes is some type of tangible by-product our outcome that can be observed.