Participation has been defined as 'a process which allows employees to exert some influence over their work and the conditions under which they work' (Heller, et al. 1998: 15), or alternatively 'a process in which influence on decision making is shared between hierarchical superiors and their subordinates' (Wagner and Gooding 1987 quoted in Heller, et al. 1998: 67). These two definitions encompass a broad range of activities through which employees can affect decision making, from consultative or communication (employee involvement) mechanisms where individual workers' input is asked for and considered by managers who nevertheless retain responsibility for the final decision, to participation mechanisms involving representative structures where workers are major parties to these decisions (Hyman and Mason 1995).