This paper describes and analyses the process of training and management development in Chinese state-owned enterprises. It provides an eye-witness account of how training is perceived and implemented under a flux of economic reforms, most of which are politically as well as economically strategic. The Chinese approach to the training and development of human resources is discussed and the problems encountered in the process are analysed. Therefore, it is argued that one of the urgent measures for the enhancement of China's economic reforms is the development of adequate training programmes that could meet the increasing need for skilful and efficient managers who would be able to cope with the waves of change. Although considerable efforts have been made to develop the largest possible numbers of people by using different methods of learning and training (Warner, 1985; 1992; Borgonjon and Vanhonacker, 1994) there is still a gap between the abilities and the process of developing Chinese managers on the one hand and what is required from them for dealing with economic reforms on the other. Expectations run higher than what could be actually achieved. Limited resources, inadequate means and ideological restrictions are some of the factors that describe the actual position as far as training and management development are concerned. Attempts, therefore, have been made to;

describe the objectives and structure of the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) for the training of Chinese managers;

establish the need for training and management development in China;

156 describe the main characteristics of the Chinese approach to training and learning;

analyse the reasons for the failure of Western-orientated management development programmes; and

concludes with a discussion of the main factors on which successful programmes for training and management development may depend in the future.