The chapter 1 explores the current understanding of IT-enabled communication in organisations and IT-media choice. It examines the central concerns and ideas in the field addressed by theories drawing from rational and interpretativist perspectives. Thus, theoretical fragmentation is recognised and the controversial views of the effects of communication are presented. Characteristics of IT-mediated communication are identified, positive and negative impacts on organisational effectiveness examined, as is the IT-mediated communication effect on group behaviour. It is concluded that the effective choice of communication media depends on organisational understanding of the message the organisation is trying to communicate to internal as well as external stakeholders and what specific behaviour an organisation is trying to promote.