This chapter argues for a broader view of the history of Cold War science, extending beyond research that focused on strategic priorities. Interest in natural resources and concerns about environmental impacts also shaped Arctic research during the Cold War. While resource science has usually been considered separately from strategic research, there were several common elements. These included aspects of scientific practices, views of the northern environment, attitudes regarding the purposes and capabilities of science and technology, and the nature of scientific work. Overall, strategic and resource science shared a variety of assumptions regarding the practice and politics of science. Ultimately, however, these assumptions would conflict with emerging environmental and Indigenous priorities in the Arctic.