This chapter seeks to provide an introduction for the reader to sleep medicine. Specifically, it will provide information on what sleep is, an overview of sleep disorders, the consequences of poor sleep, racial/ethnic disparities in sleep health outcomes, evidence-based interventions for sleep disorders, and future directions that will advance the field in the years to come. Adequate sleep quantity and quality should be considered an essential element of health, and sleep should be prioritized as a clinical and research focus for health psychologists.