This chapter introduces the emerging field of health neuroscience. Drawing on theoretical models and methodological approaches from psychology, neuroscience, and medicine, the interdisciplinary field of health neuroscience focuses on the mind, brain, and body to understand health and disease processes. Empirical examples are presented to illustrate the scope of current health neuroscience research which complements traditional health psychology topics, including stress and coping, health behaviors and health behavior change, and specific conditions (e.g., metabolic syndrome). The entry concludes with a discussion of behavioral interventions and applications of health neuroscience, remarks on the current state of the rumination literature, and provides suggestions for future research.