The world today is experiencing unprecedented growth of older adult populations, in part, due to advancements in medical management of chronic health conditions, resulting in larger numbers of adults living a greater number of years with chronic illness. Often, chronic illnesses are associated with impairments in psychological and cognitive functioning. Thus, the field of health psychology plays a critical role in research and clinical intervention with aging individuals. This chapter provides a select overview of recent findings in the field of aging and health psychology, including documented associations of personality and neurocognitive function with physical health among older adults. Relevant psychological and biological theories of aging and health are summarized, in addition to standard methods utilized in aging research. Mechanisms linking aging to chronic disease are highlighted, including both biological influences of systemic inflammation and psychosocial effects of social integration. Cultural influences in health psychology and aging within the US and around the world also are considered. Included is a brief discussion of psychological and behavioral interventions designed to address relevant areas of impaired functioning among older adults, as well as possible directions for future research in the field of health psychology and aging.