This chapter provides an update of the literature addressing shared decision making (SDM), beginning by describing the most prevalent models/frameworks, followed by a brief discussion of the barriers to implementation. Next, the common instruments in the measurement of SDM are presented, then a brief discussion on the extent to which patients want to be involved in their healthcare decisions and the degree of participation by physicians. This chapter also covers the effectiveness of interventions to improve the adoption of SDM interventions, and finishes with a discussion of the future directions of SDM: focusing on LGBT and LGBT racial/ethnic patients.