Ever since urban planners and managers have been faced with an energy crisis, the potential of using telecommunications and computing services for saving energy has come to their attention. Messages conveyed by channels in the electromagnetic spectrum overcome the friction of space for a tiny fraction of the energy applied in transport. Therefore the established practice of moving people and paper about to get the business of the city done is questioned. Moreover, it has been discovered that energy conservation in buildings and factories requires paying attention to a great deal more detail — a task that should be delegated to instruments, telecommunications channels and computers, because these systems are much faster than clerical workers, and eventually make fewer errors (Goddard 1980).