Since the end of the 20th century, as a result of the struggles of indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples in Latin America, different types of universities have been created that are often generically referred to as “intercultural universities.” However, experiences in this field are very heterogeneous and a distinction must be made between those established “by” indigenous and/or Afro-descendant organizations and/or intellectuals, others that have been established through alliances between indigenous and Afro-descendant communities with “conventional” universities and/or different types of social organizations, and others founded by state agencies.