An important feature of Africa’s post-independence history is undoubtedly the high number of violent conflicts. 1 Approximately 75 percent of African countries experienced internal armed conflict after gaining independence since the 1960s or 1970s. Even well into the twenty-first century, severe political tensions, violent government repression, and armed conflict continue to wreak havoc in numerous African countries. The relatively recent emergence of new violent conflicts in countries such as South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Mali, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, are stark reminders of the daunting challenge that many African countries continue to face.