This chapter focuses on the Northern Irish conflict and includes the most comprehensive research study carried out on the subject of social work and ‘the Troubles’ to date. It begins with a review of literature which summarises key aspects of the nature of the conflict, social, political and economic factors and the role that social work played during these years. This sets the background for a study which examined the experiences of social workers during two key decades of violence and conflict that preceded the Belfast Agreement (Northern Ireland Office, 1998). The second part of the chapter describes the mixed methods study which surveyed and then carried out in-depth interviews with social workers who had practised during this period. The findings reveal how social workers used a range of strategies and interventions to deliver services to victims and survivors of the conflict, often at high risk to their physical and psychological well-being. The chapter then concludes with reflections on implications for policy and practice from the research findings.