Recent advances in computer information technologies seem to pose something of a dilemma for managers. The widespread diffusion of computer applications has created the potential for interlinking and integrating computer systems which, in turn, has suggested opportunities for greater centralisation. By contrast, the reducing costs of microcomputers and computing power generally, the development of simpler programming languages, and especially the appearance of a wide range of software packages, have contributed to an explosion of informal, end-user and personal computing. This latter phenomenon is potentially a strong countervailing pressure to the previously mentioned centralising tendencies, by virtue of the demands for autonomy and individual initiative generated by users.