Chapter 6 presents empirical evidence from the 2012 London and 2014 Sochi Olympics to examine the capacity building processes in the context of the UK and Russian national sport organisations (NSOs). First, the chapter deals with the critical role of NSOs for both the Olympic Movement and for staging the Games. Then, the scale of the Games and the socio-cultural context in which they are held is used to explain the different approaches and effects of leveraging the Games for capacity building.