Omphalocele (also known as exomphalos) consists of a central abdominal wall defect that permits herniation of abdominal viscera into a sac made up of a three-layered membrane consisting of peritoneum, Wharton’s jelly, and amnion (Figure 78.1) that covers the viscera. Pare provided the first description of an omphalocele in 1634. Hey reported the successful treatment of an omphalocele by primary repair in 1803, and Ahlfeld described the escharotic treatment using alcohol in 1899. In 1814, Scarpa observed that omphaloceles were often associated with other congenital anomalies.