Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical conditions in infancy, with a peak incidence during the first 3 months of life. The incidence of hernia is much higher in premature infants, who are surviving in increasing numbers with improved intensive care management, and subsequently increasing the overall incidence. The diagnosis of inguinal hernia can be made without major difficulty in newborns. Early infancy carries a particularly high risk of incarceration of inguinal hernias. As a consequence, early surgical repair is advocated in a population in which there are additional surgical and anesthetic risks.