Congenital thoracic deformities present a wide spectrum of abnormalities. They include a myriad of complete and incomplete sternal defects: thoracic ectopia cordis, thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis (Cantrell pentalogy), and bifid sternum. The most frequent are the deformities of the ribs—including pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and Poland syndrome. Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome) and spondylothoracic dysplasia (Jarcho–Levin syndrome) pose the greatest surgical challenges.