Neurogenic bladder in the neonate can be divided into three groups—primary, secondary, and idiopathic. Primary neurogenic bladder develops as a result of a lesion at any level in the central nervous system, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord, or in the peripheral nervous system. The most common causes are open or closed congenital neural tube defects (spinal dysraphism). Other forms of neurological injury (e.g., cerebral palsy) can be associated with neurogenic bladder. Outside of the spinal cord, primary neurogenic bladder can result from lesions such as sacrococcygeal teratomas. Secondary neurogenic bladder, also called neuropathic bladder, occurs when the bladder acts like a neurogenic bladder but is not caused by a neurological defect. Causes in a neonate include imperforate anus, prune belly syndrome, bladder exstrophy, cloacal exstrophy, and posterior urethral valves. Idiopathic neurogenic bladder is very rare; causes include the urofacial syndrome. Where this is not present, idiopathic neurogenic bladder is a diagnosis of exclusion once primary and secondary causes have been excluded.