This chapter takes up the issue of the impact of ethnographic research on policy and practice, particularly as these relate to improving the educational outcomes of students in contexts where there are high levels of poverty and difference. While being a minority pursuit in educational research, there is a long and continuing tradition in Australia and elsewhere of school and classroom ethnography (e.g. Jackson, 1960; Armstrong, 1968; Ball, 1981; Forsey, 2006; Rowe, 2017). This research has made available important insights into how these places function. A key potential distinguishing factor of ethnographic work is the quality of the evidence produced about a single or small number of cases.