The chapter highlights some of the characteristics of Indian civil society, focusing on the past two decades. The authors examine several episodes in which civil society organizations played an important role in effecting changes to government policies or laws. They present three case studies to identify commonalities or trends that define key features of civil society in India. Taneja and Kassim-Lakha argue that civil society activism in India can, under receptive political conditions, lead to meaningful change that benefits, or has the potential to benefit, large numbers of people in the country, responding to their grievances and aspirations. The chapter also notes the growing mistrust of civil society organizations, and their harassment by the conservative Narendra Modi government that came to power in 2014.