Historically, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played an important role in the delivery of adult literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL) services to immigrant learners in the United States. Adult education programs sponsored by CBOs tend to serve students at the most basic levels of literacy and ESL. Because they are usually located in the communities where adults live, work, and conduct their private and public lives, CBOs have an advantage over outside service providers in their ability to tailor services to specific community needs. Their proximity to the community and their immersion in the issues faced by their constituencies allows them to maximize opportunities for the teaching and learning process. This has made them more aware of the bidirectionality of language and literacy learning and the potential of biliteracy.