There is an absence of sensible policy when it comes to the education of non-English-speaking adult immigrants and other linguistic minorities in the United States. As Castro and Wiley point out in this volume (see chapter 2), despite the fact that the 2000 Census shows the United States to be a multilingual society, it is erroneously assumed to be a monolingual nation. Monolingual ideology, in which language diversity is seen to be a problem, coupled with an absence of reliable data regarding the levels of English proficiency and literacy among language minorities, results in a de facto policy that is primarily shaped by attitudes and beliefs rather than by reliable data and research. This translates into restrictive monolingual instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) classes, work-place literacy development, and every other context where immigrants and other language minorities should exercise their basic human right to use their native language to communicate, learn, and work. That immigrants and speakers of languages other than English should learn English to partake in the democratic process and prosper in the United States is indisputable. The issue is how to best meet their sociolinguistic and educational needs in a manner that is pedagogically sound while they lead productive and happy lives and learn English.